How is a star born?

A star is born when atoms of light elements are squeezed under enough pressure for their nuclei to undergo fusion. All stars are the result of a balance of forces: the force of gravity compresses atoms in interstellar gas until the fusion reactions begin. And once the fusion reactions begin, they exert an outward pressure. As long as the inward force of gravity and the outward force generated by the fusion reactions are equal, the star remains stable.

Clouds of gas are common in our galaxy and in other galaxies like ours. These clouds are called nebulae. A typical nebula is many light-years across and contains enough mass to make several thousand stars the size of our sun. The majority of the gas in nebulae consists of molecules of hydrogen and helium--but most nebulae also contain atoms of other elements, as well as some surprisingly complex organic molecules. These heavier atoms are remnants of older stars, which have exploded in an event we call a supernova. The source of the organic molecules is still a mystery.

Irregularities in the density of the gas causes a net gravitational force that pulls the gas molecules closer together. Some astronomers think that a gravitational or magnetic disturbance causes the nebula to collapse. As the gases collect, they lose potential energy, which results in an increase in temperature. As the collapse continues, the temperature increases. The collapsing cloud separates into many smaller clouds, each of which may eventually become a star. The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts, and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum. When the core reaches a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Kelvin, the molecules of hydrogen gas break apart into hydrogen atoms. Eventually the core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin. When it has collapsed to about 30 times the size of our sun, it becomes a protostar.

When the pressure and temperature in the core become great enough to sustain nuclear fusion, the outward pressure acts against the gravitational force. At this stage the core is about the size of our sun. The remaining dust envelope surrounding the star heats up and glows brightly in the infrared part of the spectrum. At this point the visible light from the new star cannot penetrate the envelope. Eventually, radiation pressure from the star blows away the envelope and the new star begins its evolution. The properties and lifetime of the new star depend on the amount of gas that remains trapped. A star like our sun has a lifetime of about 10 billion years and is just middle-aged, with another five billion years or so left.

Stars form from the gravitational collapse of large clouds of interstellar material. In fact, the space between stars is not empty; it is nearly empty, but not entirely. Interstellar matter, that found lying between the stars, is made from gas and dust. Granted, only about 10 percent of the mass in our Milky Way galaxy is made up of interstellar matter. But this material, as tenuous as it is, exerts a gravitational force, and as a result, it will begin to pull itself together.

As this accretion continues, the gravity becomes increasingly strong because its strength rises as the mass increases and the distance of the individual atoms decreases. Eventually this interstellar matter entirely collapses in on itself. The material at the very center is compressed by the infalling material on the outside, pushing down to get to the center. And this compression heats up the center of the collapsing cloud. At some point, the temperature gets so extremely high at the center, it triggers a fusion reaction. All the material that has fallen in then evolves into a hot, bright star. The star will continue to shine as long as there is hydrogen gas to fuse through nuclear reactions, and the gravitational pressure pushing inward keeps the atoms very hot and tightly packed at the center.

Top 5 Trends - Where Technology Will Take E-learning in 5 Years

   1. Technology Will Drive Collaborative Learning

Collaboration is no longer a hyped-up buzz word; it’s everywhere. It’s being fostered in the workplace because sometimes the best ideas come from just having conversations with others. Facebook, Google, Yahoo – the biggest and brightest are all following this model – and it’s bound to be the next step for e-learning. As one respondent wrote “I hope that technology will enable all participants to contribute to the learning experience. Learning will become a collaborative experience not led by a traditional 'facilitator' pushing content out to consumers, but will result in shared knowledge, experiences and opinions from all to create the 'content'."


2. E-learning & M-learning Will Be In Constant Regeneration
While we can see how technology can enable a collaborative elearning system, what if in unison, the Internet is also part of the equation? Imagine your elearning module automatically picking up brand new images via tags, categories, and systematically updating your module with new content. Think about it this way: new laws or regulations are put in place and your old compliance module is void null; the Internet, which is the first medium to pick up this news, will update any content on your module that needs to be fixed. “Once a course is created the information is redundant. The next logical step would be to allow the content to change automatically through sources on the Internet (pictures, content, etc.)” 


3. Augmented Realities Will Be The Norm
If Google glasses are already a reality, what’s next? “Learning will become highly augmented…learning about architecture whilst standing at the opera house, looking at what you discussed. This followed by holographic teachers who can stand beside you and help you physically. Finally virtual classrooms through a projected self-meaning you can attend a lecture or tutorial in person even though you’re kicking back with Richard B on his island ;)” 


4. Technology Used To Fulfil User’s Needs – Not To Impress Them
Just because it’s cool, doesn’t mean it’s going to help learners. We all know what happens with trends; they hit a peak and then slowly fade away. Technology is not something that should hinder the learning experience because of the cool factor; rather it should effectively foster the user and heighten their knowledge and skillset. “Technology is just another means to deliver the learning of new knowledge, skills and attitudes - we need to ensure we don't add the bells and the whistles for the sake of it. It's like they say on Masterchef, sometimes the best food consists of three well-balanced, quality ingredients. If the technology is poorly used, we'll be faced by another cohort of learners screaming: "Not another elearning course!


5. Creating Better Blends
On the other hand, maybe technology will drive users back into the classroom.
“I'd like to see technology drive e-learning back into the classroom . . . within reason! It would be great to see technology developments that enable much better integration of online content within traditional classroom environments. Often this is attempted, but it's not often not seamless for participants - technology that better enables in classroom connection of content with facilitators with real participants would be great.”

10 Interesting and rarely known Internet and Technology facts !

1. Amazon, originally was a printed book seller company, now it sells more e-books than printed books.

2. The first banner advertisement on Website was introduced in the year 1994.

3. Facebook reports over 1 billion registered users. Were it a country, it would have had 3rd largest population in the World.

4. During 1980s, an IBM computer was not considered to be 100% compatible if it could not run Microsoft Flight Simulator.

5. Did you know that Email was already around before the World Wide Web came?

6. Every month, domain names are being registered at a rate of more than two million!

7. At the end of year 2012, there were total approximately 17 billion devices (which includes computers, tablets and mobile) connected to the Internet.

8. About 1.8 billion people connect to the Internet, only 450 million of them speak English.

9. Did you know how was Bill Gates's house was designed? Using a Macintosh computer.

10. Microsoft Windows tutorial’s another name is ‘Crash Course’.